Enrico Daga

Technologist and Researcher


Enrico Daga has carried out R&D on Web Semantics first at the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and then at the Knowledge Media Institute of The Open University in the UK, where he obtained a PhD. Enrico is currently Senior Research Fellow in KMi.


His research is exploring novel methods for Knowledge Graph construction (SPARQL Anything) and infrastructure, with particular focus on metadata management, policies and process knowledge; applied to data-intensive scenarios in the smart cities, healthcare, humanities, and cultural heritage domains. He has so far supervised three PhD students to completion.


Enrico is Technical Director and Principal Investigator (PI) for the OU in the EU-funded H2020 project Polifonia and co-investigator and work package leader in the H2020 project SPICE.
He is Technical Director of the OU Open Knowledge Graph and of the MK Data Hub, a Smart City Data Infrastructure supporting research (SciRoc - robots in Smart Cities) and innovation (CityLABS project). Before, he played key roles in projects developing intelligent systems for Ontology Engineering (NeOn) and Smart Cities (MK:Smart).

Projects and Activities

Enrico is Senior Research Fellow at the Knowldge Media Institute (KMi), The Open University.

SPARQL Anything

SPARQL Anything uses a unique data schema called Facade-X to allow users to query non-RDF resources as-if they are RDF.



Polifonia is an EU H2020-funded project which develops a Knowledge Graph of European Musical Cultural Heritage.



Social Cohesion, Participation, and Inclusion through Cultural Engagement (SPICE) is an EU-funded project dedicated to citizen curation of cultural heritage.



SciRoc is a EU-H2020 funded project supporting the European Robotics League (ERL), and whose aim is to bring all ERL tournaments in the context of smart cities.



The Intelligent Systems and Data Science team carries out research in a variety of areas relevant to the development of user-centric, intelligent, data-intensive solutions



An open and freely searchable database that brings together a mass of data about people’s experiences of listening to music of all kinds, in any historical period and any culture.



Detects traces of listening experiences in texts to support curators of the Listening Experience Database project.



CityLabs is a place for SMEs to work with academic and industry leaders to develop concepts into prototypes for new products and services in the digital economy.


MK Data Hub

The MK Data Hub was developed as part of MK:Smart, an initiative to put data at the heart of the smart city.



With BASIL you can build Web APIs on top of SPARQL endpoints, with standard and customizable output formats.


Licence Picker

A tool based on an Ontology for selecting the appropriate licence for your published data, with only few short questions.



Contento is a tool for bottom-up ontology drafting based on Formal Concept Analysis.



A large collaborative initiative, partly funded by HEFCE and led by The Open University, which is developing innovative solutions to support economic growth in Milton Keynes.


Open Knowledge Graph

The home of open linked data from The OU. We interlink and expose data available in various institutional repositories of the University and make it available openly for reuse.



An initiative of the Italian National Research Council aimed to provide public access to the information of the CNR organization.


XD Tools

eXtreme Design (XD) is a framework for pattern based ontology design developed in the context of the NeOn project.



OntologyDesignPatterns.org is a Semantic Web portal dedicated to ontology design patterns (ODPs), currently run by the ODPA.



Co-funded by the European Commission, NeOn's aim is to advance the state of the art in using ontologies for large-scale semantic applications in the distributed organizations.



Selected publications. A complete list can be accessed on Google Scholar.

Enrico Daga and Paul Groth

Data journeys: explaining AI workflows through abstraction.

Semantic Web (2023).

A data journey is a multi-layered semantic representation of data processing activity linked to data science code and assets. We propose an ontology to capture the essential elements of a data journey and an approach to extract such data journeys.

Mehwish Alam, Victor de Boer, Enrico Daga, Marieke van Erp, Eero Hyvönen, and Albert Meroño-Peñuela

Editorial of Special Issue on Cultural Heritage and Semantic Web Technology.

Semantic Web--Interoperability, Usability, Applicability (2023).

Luigi Asprino, Enrico Daga, Paul Mulholland, and Aldo Gangemi

Knowledge Graph Construction with a Façade: A Unified Method to Access Heterogeneous Data Sources on the Web.

ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT) (2023).

A unified method for data access to heterogeneous data sources with Facade-X, a meta-model implemented in a new data integration system called SPARQL Anything.

Alba Morales Tirado, Jason Carvalho, Paul Mulholland, and Enrico Daga

Musical Meetups: a Knowledge Graph approach for Historical Social Network Analysis.

CEUR Workshop Proceedings: Semantic Methods for Events and Stories (SEMMES); workshop co-located with ESWC. (2023).

This paper describes the concept of historical meetup to represent the encounters (for instance, collaborations, exchanges, links) between personalities of European history and formalise its constituent parts as an ontology

Marilena Daquino, Mari Wigham, Enrico Daga, Lucia Giagnolini, and Francesca Tomasi

CLEF. A linked open data native system for crowdsourcing.

ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (2023).

The strong focus on user-friendly interfaces for producing FAIR data, the provenance-aware editorial process, and the integration with consolidated data management workflows, distinguish CLEF as a novel attempt to develop Linked Data platforms for cultural heritage.

Paul Mulholland, Adam Stoneman, Naomi Barker, Mark Maguire, Jason Carvalho, Enrico Daga, and Paul Warren

The Sound of Paintings: Using Citizen Curation to Explore the Cross-Modal Personalization of Museum Experiences.

Adjunct Proceedings of the 31st ACM Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization (2023).

This paper describes the use of Citizen Curation to explore ways in which cross-modal experiences can be used and created by museum visitors.

M. Ratta and E. Daga

Knowledge Graph Construction from MusicXML: an empirical investigation with SPARQL Anything

Workshop on Musical Heritage Knowledge Graphs (MHKG) - co-located with ISWC (2022)

We explore the application of SPARQL Anything -- a tool for façade-based knowledge graph construction (KGC) -- for querying MusicXML.

A. Chiatti and E. Daga

Neuro-symbolic learning for dealing with sparsity in cultural heritage image archives: an empirical journey.

Workshop on Deep Learning and Knowledge Graphs (DL4KG) - co-located with ISWC (2022)

Neuro-symbolic techniques are applied to a cultural heritage archive, exploring what type of feature engineering could help in reducing the impact of data sparsity typical of this domain.

A. Morales Tirado, E. Daga, E. Motta

Towards a Knowledge Graph of Health Evolution.

International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW) - Springer, Cham (2022)

A methodology and knowledge acquisitin pipeline to support domain experts in curating a knowledge graph of Health Condition Evolution Statements (HES).

P. Reyero Lobo, E. Daga, H. Alani, M. Fernandez

Semantic Web technologies and bias in artificial intelligence: A systematic literature review.

Semantic Web - IOS Press (2022)

We review the extent to which semantics can be a “tool” to address bias in different algorithmic scenarios.

P. Reyero Lobo, E. Daga, H. Alani

Supporting Online Toxicity Detection with Knowledge Graphs.

Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media - AAAI (2022)

We propose the use of a knowledge graph to help in better understanding such toxic speech annotation issues.

E. Daga et al.

Integrating citizen experiences in cultural heritage archives: requirements, state of the art, and challenges

Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (JOCCH) - ACM. (2022)

Citizen Curation urges to rethink the nature of computational infrastructures for cultural heritage, bringing novel challenges that include issues of distribution, authoritativeness, interdependence, privacy, and rights management.

Alba Catalina Morales Tirado, Enrico Daga, and Enrico Motta

Reasoning on health condition evolution for enhanced detection of vulnerable people in emergency settings.

In: Eleventh International Conference on Knowledge Capture (K-Cap), ACM, USA, 2021

In this paper, we propose a methodology for representing the evolution of health conditions and reasoning about them in the context of an emergency scenario.

Enrico Daga, Luigi Asprino, Paul Mulholland, and Aldo Gangemi

Facade-X: an Opinionated Approach to SPARQL Anything

SEMANTICS Conference (2021)

We contribute a general-purpose meta-model for converting non-RDF resources into RDF: Facade-X. Our approach can be implemented by overriding the SERVICE operator and does not require to extend the SPARQL syntax.

Enrico Daga, Albert Meroño-Peñuela, and Enrico Motta

Sequential Linked Data: the State of Affairs

Semantic Web Journal, Special Issue on Benchmarking the Web of Data - IOS Press. (2021)

We study the efficiency of implementing atomic read-write operations for Semantic Web lists in SPARQL with five typical RDF data models.

Agnese Chiatti, Enrico Motta, and Enrico Daga

Towards a Framework for Visual Intelligence in Service Robotics: Epistemic Requirements and Gap Analysis

In: Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR 2020)

We analyze requirements for Visual Intelligence using existing frameworks for human-like Visual Intelligence in the literature, and errors emerging from object recognition trials in a real-world robotic scenario.

Enrico Motta, Enrico Daga, Andreas Opdhal, and Bjørnar Tessem

Analysis and design of computational news angles

In: IEEE Access, 8, 120613-120626 (2020).

A formal framework for representing news angles and carry out a preliminary analysis of a number of commonly used news angles...

Alba Catalina Morales Tirado, Enrico Daga, and Enrico Motta

Effective Use of Personal Health Records to Support Emergency Services

In: Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW), 2020

We develop a methodology involving a knowledge engineering approach and a common-sense knowledge base to address the problem of deriving useful information from health records ...

Enrico Daga and Enrico Motta

Capturing themed evidence, a hybrid approach

In: Tenth International Conference on Knowledge Capture (K-Cap), 2019

In this paper, we coin the expression themed evidence, to refer to traces of a fact or situation relevant to a theme of interest and study the problem of identifying them in texts.

Enrico Daga, Albert Meroño-Peñuela, and Enrico Motta

Modelling and Querying Lists in RDF. A Pragmatic Study

In: Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Querying the Web of Data (QuWeDa), 2019

We survey different solutions for modelling sequences in RDF, and propose a pragmatic approach for assessing their impact on data availability.

Enrico Daga and Aldo Gangemi

Linked Data for the Humanities: methods and techniques

In: Digital Humanities 2019: Complexities (Pierazzo, Elena and Ciotti, Fabio eds.), Uthrect, 2019

A DH2019 tutorial organised in three sessions: (1) Linked Data in a nutshell; (2) Producing and consuming Linked Data; (3) Hybrid methods for working with texts and LD.

Enrico Daga, Aldo Gangemi, and Enrico Motta

Reasoning with data flows and policy propagation rules

In: Semantic Web, vol. 9, no. 2, 2018

Data-oriented systems and applications are at the centre of current developments of the World Wide Web. In these scenarios, assessing what policies propagate from the licenses of data sources to the output of a given data-intensive system is an important problem.

Enrico Daga

Knowledge Components and Methods for Policy Propagation in Data Flows

PhD Thesis. Knowledge Media Institute Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics The Open University, 2018

In this thesis, we tackle the problem of policy propagation in data flows - an expression that refers to the way data is consumed, manipulated and produced within processes. We pose the question of what kind of components are required, and how they can be acquired, managed, and deployed, to support users on deciding what policies propagate to the output of a data-intensive system from the ones associated with its input.

Marilena Daquino et al.

Characterizing the landscape of musical data on the Web: State of the art and challenges

In: Workshop on Humanities in the Semantic Web - WHiSe II, 2017

A survey of the landscape of musical data on the Web, available as a Linked Open Dataset: the musoW dataset of catalogued musical resources.

Enrico Daga, Alessandro Adamou, Stuart Brown, and Mathieu d'Aquin

The Open University Linked Data – data.open.ac.uk

In: Semantic Web, vol. 7, no. 2, 2016

The article reports on the evolution of data.open.ac.uk, the Linked Open Data platform of the Open University, from a research experiment to a data hub for the open content of the University.

Enrico Daga, Mathieu d'Aquin, Aldo Gangemi, and Enrico Motta

An incremental learning method to support the annotation of workflows with data-to-data relations

In: European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, pp. 129-144. Springer, Cham, 2016

An rule association mining technique that allows to compensate the cold start problem due to the lack of a training set of annotated workflows.

Alessandro Adamou, Enrico Daga, and Leif Isaksen (Editors)

WHiSe Workshop

CEUR Workshop Proceedings Vol. 1608, 2016.

Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Humanities in the Semantic Web co-located with 13th ESWC Conference 2016 (ESWC 2016).

Enrico Daga, Mathieu d'Aquin, Alessandro Adamou, and Enrico Motta

Addressing Exploitability of Smart City Data

In: IEEE International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2), 2016

We present a methodology to enable Smart City Data Hubs to better address exploitability by considering the way policies propagate across the data flows applied in the system.

Enrico Daga, Mathieu d'Aquin, Aldo Gangemi, and Enrico Motta

Propagation of policies in rich data flows.

In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Knowledge Capture, p. 5. ACM, 2015

Provides a definition of Policy Propagation Rule and a methodology to acquire and manage them, based on the Datanode ontology.

Enrico Daga, Mathieu d'Aquin, Enrico Motta, and Aldo Gangemi

A Bottom-Up Approach for Licences Classification and Selection

In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Legal Domain And Semantic Web Applications (LeDA-SWAn), 2015

Developing an ontology with a bottom-up approach based on Formal Concept Analysis, we show how the process of licence selection can be simplified significantly.

Enrico Daga, Luca Panziera, and Carlos Pedrinaci

A BASILar Approach for Building Web APIs on top of SPARQL Endpoints

In: Workshop on Services and Applications over Linked APIs and Data, 2015

The paper proposes BASIL, an approach to build Web APIs on top of SPARQL endpoints, in order to benefit of the advantages from both Web APIs and Linked Data approaches.

Valentina Presutti, Eva Blomqvist, Enrico Daga, and Aldo Gangemi

Pattern-based ontology design

In: Ontology Engineering in a Networked World, 2012

ODPs are the main tool for performing pattern-based design of ontologies, which is an approach to ontology development that emphasizes reuse and promotes the development of a common “language” for sharing knowledge about ontology design best practices.

Claudio Baldassarre, Enrico Daga, Aldo Gangemi, Alfio Gliozzo, Alberto Salvati, Gianluca Troiani

Semantic scout: Making sense of organizational knowledge

EKAW: Knowledge Engineering and Management by the Masses, 2010

RDF-OWL datasets generated on the basis of a highly modular, pattern-based ontology are created, enriched by means of inferences and NLP techniques, and are integrated with linked open data.

Valentina Presutti, Enrico Daga, Aldo Gangemi, and Eva Blomqvist

eXtreme design with content ontology design patterns

Workshop on Ontology Patterns (WOP), 2009

We present eXtreme Design with Content Ontology Design Patterns (XD): a collaborative, incremental, iterative method for pattern-based ontology design..


Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University
Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom


+44 (0) 1908 654887